Deleting files from Git commit history

If you commits an sensitive file or a huge unwanted file, you may want to remove it from every commit. Git provides a nuclear-level command git filter-branch which allows you rewrite the history.

git filter-branch executes the specified command for each commit specified by you and generates new commits.

Before you start, you must keep it in mind that this operation changes the existing history. If it is a public repository and someone have did some work based on the commits you want to rewrite, you’d better not do this. If you have to, remember to notify them to run git pull --rebase command.

Delete a huge folder from every commit

Here is an example of how to remove a huge folder from each commit which is committed accidentally at first.

You’d better test below commands in a temporary repository to make sure that they work properly for your git version. It is met that git filter-branch below removes the folder in working tree as well but it should not.

We do it in a new testing branch, when the result is what we want then reset it as the prior branch.

# Do it in a new testing branch
$ git checkout -b test

# Remove 'build' folder from every commit on the new branch
# --index-filter, rewrite index without checking out
# -r, remove recursively in subfolders
# --cached, remove it from index but not include working tree
# --ignore-unmatch, ignore if files to be removed are absent in a commit
# --prune-empty, remove empty commits generated by 'git rm' command
# HEAD, execute the specified command for each commit reached from HEAD by parent link
$ git filter-branch --index-filter 'git rm -r --cached --ignore-unmatch build' --prune-empty HEAD
Rewrite fee4b8ee9df321a877cd2663b20b293eea4a1f8c (1/2)rm 'build/'
Rewrite 63f272ab5152c66693614efae77567799837c6e0 (2/2)
Ref 'refs/heads/test-filter' was rewritten

# The output is OK, reset it to the prior branch master
$ git checkout master
$ git reset --soft test

# Remove test branch
$ git branch -rm test

# Push it with force
$ git push --force origin master

If you changed commits in remote repository, remember notice other members execute below command:

# Tell others to execute below command if you changed commits in remote repository.
$ git pull --rebase


  1. If --ignore-unmatch option is not added, it will fail when the files to be removed do not exist in a commit.
  2. The files you removed will stay in disk for a while, they will be removed entirely in the next automic garbage collection of git.

Tips: To avoid adding unwanted files accidently, you should ignore it.

Other useful options:

# Execute the specified command for the last 5 commit
$ git filter-branch --index-filter 'git rm --cached --ignore-unmatch user.pem' HEAD~6..HEAD

# Execute the specified command for all branches
$ git filter-branch --index-filter 'git rm --cached --ignore-unmatch user.pem' -- --all

# Update tags when executing filter-branch, remember to push them to remotes afterwards
$ git filter-branch --index-filter 'git rm --cached --ignore-unmatch user.pem' --tag-name-filter cat HEAD

# Remove empty commits generated by 'git rm' command
$ git filter-branch --index-filter 'git rm --cached --ignore-unmatch user.pem' --prune-empty HEAD